Spline regression modelling of PTO performance of tractor fuelled with different biodiesels

Ali Aybek, Selcuk Arslan, Mustafa Ucgul, Serdar Üçok

Abstract


Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of fitting spline regression models for power take-off (PTO) performance characteristics of an agricultural tractor tested with four different fuels, including diesel fuel (B0) and three biodiesel blends made of canola oil (B10: 10% biodiesel + 90% petro-diesel blend; B20: 20% biodiesel + 90% petro-diesel blend; B30: 30% biodiesel + 90% petro-diesel blend). The performance characteristics evaluated were PTO power, engine torque, engine fuel consumption, and specific fuel consumption. Due to sharp slopes in measured quantities around the nominal engine speed (2200 r/min), compared to the standard regression method, the spline regression models suited well to the experimental data with coefficient of determination R2=0.99 for PTO power and engine torque. R2 varied between 0.97 and 0.99 for fuel consumption and 0.91 and 0.95 for specific fuel consumption. The weaker correlation found for specific fuel consumption could be attributed to profound fluctuations in measured data causing atypical pattern in the corresponding graphs around the nominal engine speed. It was concluded that splines were useful to accurately predict the measured PTO power and engine torque. Neither standard methods nor splines were sufficient to obtain very good regression models for specific fuel consumption.
Keywords: biodiesel, performance characteristics, power take-off, tractor, spline modelling
DOI: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20171003.3220

Citation: Aybek A, Arslan S, Ucgul M, Üçok S. Spline regression modelling of PTO performance of tractor fuelled with different biodiesels. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2017; 10(3): 115–120.

Keywords


biodiesel, performance characteristics, power take-off, tractor, spline modelling

References


Liljedahl J B, Turnquist P K, Smith D W, Hoki M. Tractors and their powers units. Fourth Edition. ASAE Textbook No: 801P0196, 1996.

Ulusoy Y, Alibas K. The use of the mixtures of the methyl eyster of the cotton oil and the oil of the raw cotton with diesel fuel as alternative fuel and effects of the performance values of the engine. Proceedings of the 20th Congress on Agricultural Mechanization and Energy, Sanlıurfa, Turkey, 2001; pp.473–477

OECD. Standard Code 2 for the offıcial testing of agricultural and forestry tractor performance. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008

Senatore A, Cardone M, Rocco V, Pratti MA. Comparative analysis of combustion process in D. I. diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel fuel. SAE Paper 200–001–0691, 2000.

Agarwal A K, Das L M. Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power Transaction (ASME), 2001; 123: 440–447.

Carraretto C, Macor A, Mirandola A, Stoppato A, Tonon S. Biodiesel as alternative fuel: experimental analysis and energetic evaluations. Energy, 2004; 29: 2195–2211.

Cetinkaya M, Ulusoy Y, Tekin Y, Karaosmanoglu F. Engine and winter road test performances of used cooking oil originated biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management, 2005; 46: 1279–1291.

Gravalos I, Gialamas T, Koutsofitis Z, Kateris D, Xyradakis

P, Tsiropoulos Z, Lianos G. Comparison of performance characteristics of agricultural tractor diesel engine operating on home and industrially produced biodiesel. International Journal of Energy Research, 2009; 33: 1048–1058.

Godeša T, Jej V, Poje T. Characteristics of a tractor engine using mineral and biodiesel fuels blended with rapeseed oil. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.), 2010; 67(5): 510–516.

Um S, Park SW. Modeling effect of the biodiesel mixing ratio on combustion and emission characteristics using a reduced mechanism of methyl butanoate. Fuel, 2010; 89: 1415–1421.

Shirneshan A. Brake torque of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and Diesel. International Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2013; 2(6): 242–246.

Pullen J, Saeed K. Factors affecting biodiesel engine performance and exhaust emissions - Part II: Experimental study. Energy, 2014, 72: 17–34.

McDonnell K P, Ward S M, McNulty P B, Howard-Hildige R. Results of engine and vehicle testing of semirefined rapeseed oil. Transactions of the ASAE, 2013; 43(6): 1309–1316.

Aybek A, Baser E, Arslan S, Ucgul M. Determination of the effect of biodiesel use on power take-off performance characteristics of an agricultural tractor in a test laboratory. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 2011; 35(2): 103–113.

Kumar T S, Kumar P S, Annamalai K. Experimental study on the performance and emission measures of direct injection diesel engine with Kapok methyl ester and its blends. Renewable Energy, 2015, 74: 903–909.

Mofijur M, Masjuki H H, Kalam M A, Atabani A E, Arbab M I, Cheng S F, et al. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 2014, 82: 169–176.

Gerald C F, Wheatley P O. Applied Numerical Analysis. Fifth Edition, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-56553-6.

Marsh L C, Cormier D R. Spline regression models. Sage University Paper Series: Quantitative Applications in the Social Science. Serial/ Number: 07-137, 2002.

Sahin M. Piecewise regression and its using in agriculture fields. PhD dissertation. Kahramanmaraş Sutçu Imam University, Department of Animal Sciences, 2008, p.140, Türkiye. (in Turkish)

Beal D J, Ridge O. SAS code to select the best multiple linear regression model for multivariate data using information criteria, Available: http://www.itc.virginia.edu/ research/talks/sa01_05.pdf. Accessed [2008-6-5]


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.