Properties and applications of biochars derived from different biomass feedstock sources

Bai Xiaofeng, Zhou Xiaoqin, Li Zifu, Ni Jiewen, Bai Xue

Abstract


In China, substantial agricultural and garden wastes are burned yearly. This practice not only wastes resources but also pollutes air. Corn straw and poplar leaves are typical agricultural and garden waste in China. In this study, corn straw and poplar leaves were used to prepare biochars with different pyrolysis temperatures (250°C, 350°C, 450°C, 550°C and 650°C) and were labeled as CC (corn straw) and LC (poplar leaves), respectively. The biochars were characterized through elemental analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Yield, ash content and biochar pH were also measured. Results showed that the two biochars possessed some similar characteristics with increasing pyrolysis temperature. These attributes included increased carbon content, biochar hydrophobicity, alkaline pH; decreased hydrogen and oxygen contents and polar functional group content; and enlarged surface area. The biochars also displayed some different characteristics, such as the obviously larger surface area of CC than that of LC at high pyrolysis temperatures and the regular holes of CC and irregular and disordered holes of LC. When biochars CC-650 and LC-650 were used as soil conditioners, the soil pH increased by 0.3 and 0.4 units, respectively, and the soil cation exchange capacity increased by 12.7% and 21.5%, respectively, with respect to those of the blank controls.
Keywords: biochars, corn straw, poplar leaves, pyrolysis, thermochemical property
DOI: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20171002.2878

Citation: Bai X F, Zhou X Q, Li Z F, Ni J W, Bai X. Properties and applications of biochars derived from different biomass feedstock sources. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2017; 10(2): 242–250.

Keywords


biochars, corn straw, poplar leaves, pyrolysis, thermochemical property

References


Zuo X, Wang H Y, Wang Y J, Wang L, Jing L, Wang D L. Estimation and suitability evaluation of corn straw resources in China. Chinese Journal of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, 2015; 6: 5–10. (in Chinese)

Kou W Z. The poplar industry within the broad road of harmonious development in China. China Forestry Industry, 2006; 11:14–16. (in Chinese)

Zhang Y. Poplar industry in the golden age. Forestry in China, 2007; 7: 18–22. (in Chinese)

Barrow C J. Biochar: Potential for countering land degradation and for improving agriculture. Applied Geography, 2012; 34: 21–28.

Biederman L A, Harpole W S. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 2013; 5(2): 202–214.

Pituello C, Francioso O, Simonetti G, Pisi A, Torreggiani A, Berti A, et al. Characterization of chemical–physical, structural and morphological properties of biochars from biowastes produced at different temperatures. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 2015; 15(4): 792–804.

Chan K Y, Zwieten L V, Meszaros I, Downie A, Joseph S. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 2007; 45(8): 629–634.

Asai H, Samson B K, Stephan H M, Songyikhangsuthor K, Homma K, Kiyono Y, et al. Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crops Research, 2009; 111(S1-2): 81–84.

Chan K Y, Zwiteten L V, Meszaros I, Downie A, Joseph S. Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 2008; 46(5): 437–444.

Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, Riha S J, Lehmann J. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil, 2010; 333(1): 117–128.

Marris E. Putting the carbon back: black is the new green. Nature, 2006; 442(7103): 624–626.

Zwieten L V, Kimber S, Morris S, Chan K Y, Downie A, Rust J, et al. Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant and Soil, 2010; 327(1): 235–246.

Chen Z, Fang Y, Xu Y, Chen B. Adsorption of Pb2+ by rice straw derived-biochar and its influential factors. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 2012; 32(4): 769–776.

Yao Y, Gao B, Zhang M, Inyang M, Zimmerman A R. Effect of biochar amendment on sorption and leaching of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate in a sandy soil. Chemosphere, 2012; 89(11): 1467–1471.

Zhang Y, Li Z, Mahmood I B. Recovery of NH4+ by corn cob produced biochars and its potential application as soil conditioner. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, 2014; 8(6): 825–834.

Chen B, Zhou D, Zhu L. Transitional adsorption and partition of nonpolar and polar aromatic contaminants by biochars of pine needles with different pyrolytic temperatures. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008; 42(14): 5137–5143.

Wu W, Yang M, Feng Q, Mcgrouther K, Wang H, Lu H, et al. Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass & Bioenergy, 2012; 47(4): 268–276.

Kim K H, Kim J Y, Cho T S, Choi J W. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on physicochemical properties of biochar obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pitch pine (Pinus rigida). Bioresource Technology, 2012; 118(8): 158–162.

Windeatt J H, Ross A B, Williams P T, Forster P M, Nahil M A, Singh S. Characteristics of biochars from crop residues: potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. Journal of Environmental Management, 2014; 146: 189–197.

Peters B. Prediction of pyrolysis of pistachio shells based on its components hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Fuel & Energy Abstracts, 2011; 92(10): 1993–1998.

Harvey O R, Kuo L J, Zimmerman A R, Louchouarn P, Amonette J E, Herbert B E. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars). Environmental Science & Technology, 2012; 46(3): 1415–1421.

Yuan J H, Xu R K, Zhang H. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresource Technology, 2011; 102(3): 3488–3497.

Yuan H, Lu T, Wang Y, Huang H, Chen Y. Influence of pyrolysis temperature and holding time on properties of biochar derived from medicinal herb (radix isatidis) residue and its effect on soil CO2 emission. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 2014; 110(1): 277–284.

Fu P, Yi W M, Bai X Y, Li Z H, Hu S, Xiang J. Effect of temperature on gas composition and char structural features of pyrolyzed agricultural residues. Bioresource Technology, 2011; 102(17): 8211–8219.

Chen Y, Duan J, Luo Y H. Investigation of agricultural residues pyrolysis behavior under inert and oxidative conditions. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 2008; 83(2): 165–174.

Amutio M, Lopez G, Artetxe M, Elordi G, Olazar M, Bilbao J, et al. Influence of temperature on biomass pyrolysis in a conical spouted bed reactor. Resources Conservation & Recycling, 2012; 59(2): 23–31.

Stefaniuk M, Oleszczuk P. Characterization of biochars produced from residues from biogas production. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 2015; 115: 157–165.

Zhu D, Seokjoon Kwon A, Pignatello J J. Adsorption of single-ring organic compounds to wood charcoals prepared under different thermochemical conditions. Environmental Science & Technology, 2005; 39(11): 3990–3998.

Wolbach W S, Anders E. Elemental carbon in sediments: Determination and isotopic analysis in the presence of kerogen. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta, 1989; 53(7): 1637–1647.

Zielińska A, Oleszczuk P, Charmas B, Skubiszewska-Zięba J, Pasieczna-Patkowska S. Effect of sewage sludge properties on the biochar characteristic. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 2015; 112: 201–213.

Zeng K, Minh D P, Gauthier D, Weiss-Hortala E, Nzihou A, Flamant G. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood. Bioresource Technology, 2015; 182: 114–119.

Fu P, Hu S, Xiang J, Sun L, Su S, Wang J. Evaluation of the porous structure development of chars from pyrolysis of rice straw: Effects of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate. Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis, 2012; 98: 177–183.

Liu W J, Zeng F X, Jiang H, Zhang X S. Preparation of high adsorption capacity bio-chars from waste biomass. Bioresource Technology, 2011; 102(17): 8247–8252.

Zhang G, Zhang Q, Ke S, Liu X, Zheng W, Ye Z. Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures. Environmental Pollution, 2011; 159(10): 2594–2601.

Uchimiya M, Wartelle L H, Klasson K T, Fortier C A, Lima I M. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar property and function as a heavy metal sorbent in soil. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 2011; 59(6): 2501–2510.

Luo Y, Durenkamp M, Nobili M D, Lin Q, Brookes P C. Short term soil priming effects and the mineralisation of biochar following its incorporation to soils of different pH. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 2011; 43(11): 2304–2314.

Atkinson C J, Fitzgerald J D, Hipps N A. Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant and Soil, 2010; 337(1): 1–18.


Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.