Medium-low temperature hydrothermal hydrolysis kinetic characteristics of concentrated wet microalgae biomass

Ding Xiaojian, Huang Yun, Liao Qiang, Fu Qian, Xia Ao, Xiao Chao, Zhu Xun, Reungsang Alissara, Liu Zhidan


To improve microalgae biomass utilization efficiency during biofuel production process, medium-low temperature hydrothermal hydrolysis pretreatment was adopted in this study. The pretreatment kinetic characteristics of concentrated wet microalgae Chlorella vulgaris biomass (50 g/L) under medium-low temperature hydrolysis (100°C-200°C) were experimentally investigated. The hydrothermal hydrolysis kinetics describing the coupled effects of temperature, initial pressure and retention time then were proposed using response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum carbohydrate yield reached 327.3 mg/g dried biomass under initial pressure of 4 MPa at reaction temperature of 150°C for 120 min. The maximum protein yield (321.5 mg/g dried biomass) was obtained under initial pressure of 4 MPa at reaction temperature of 200°C for 60 min. Based on the hydrothermal hydrolysis kinetic models, it was confirmed that temperature was the most important factor affecting both carbohydrate and protein release during hydrothermal hydrolysis process. Hydrothermal initial pressure and retention time were significant to carbohydrate release, but not to protein release. While, lipid was mainly distributed in microalgae residual and almost did not exist in supernatant (about 8.03 mg/g). And with assistance of mixed hexane and methanol (the ratio of hexane to methanol was 7:3), 67.69% of microalgae lipid was extracted out from hydrothermal hydrolysed microalgae residual (123.3 mg/g dried biomass).
Keywords: hydrothermal hydrolysis, kinetic characteristics, microalgae, medium-low temperature, biofuel, response surface methodology
DOI: 10.3965/j.ijabe.20171001.2699

Citation: Ding X J, Huang Y, Liao Q, Fu Q, Xia A, Xiao C, et al. Medium-low temperature hydrothermal hydrolysis kinetic characteristics of concentrated wet microalgae biomass. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2017; 10(1): 154–162.


Chang H X, Huang Y, Fu Q, Liao Q, Zhu X. Kinetic characteristics and modeling of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation considering the coupled effects of light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon. Bioresour. Technol., 2016; 206: 231–238.

Yang Y, Liu T Y, Liao Q, Ye D D, Zhu X, Li J, et al. A three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel-activated carbon composite catalyst that enables low-cost microfluidic microbial fuel cells with superior performance. J. Mater. Chem., 2016; 4(41): 15913–15919.

Suali E, Sarbatly R. Conversion of microalgae to biofuel. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2012; 16(6): 4316–4342.

Chen H H, Zhou D, Luo G, Zhang S C, Chen J M. Macroalgae for biofuels production: progress and perspectives. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2015; 47: 427–437.

Ren N Q, Li Y F, Wang A J, Li Z J, Ding J, Zadsar M. Hydrogen production by fermentation: review of a new approach to environmentally safe energy production. Aquat. Eco. Health Manage, 2006; 9(1): 39–42.

Brethauer S, Wyman C E. Review: continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production. Bioresour. Technol., 2010; 101(13): 4862–4874.

Kumar Gopalakrishnan, Sivagurunathan Periyasamy, Thi N B D, Zhen G Y, Kobayashi Takuro, Kim S H, et al. Evaluation of different pretreatments on organic matter solubilization and hydrogen fermentation of mixed microalgae consortia. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy., 2016; 41(46): 21628–21640.

Fu C C, Hung T C, Chen J Y, Su C H, Wu W T. Hydrolysis of microalgae cell walls for production of reducing sugar and lipid extraction. Bioresour. Technol., 2010; 101(22): 8750–8754.

Zhou N, Zhang Y, Wu X B, Gong X W, Wang Q H. Hydrolysis of Chlorella biomass for fermentable sugars in the presence of HCl and MgCl2. Bioresour. Technol., 2011; 102(21): 10158–10161.

Montingelli M E, Tedesco S, Olabi A G. Biogas production from algal biomass: A review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2015; 43: 961–972.

Passos F, Ferrer I. Influence of hydrothermal pretreatment on microalgal biomass anaerobic digestion and bioenergy production. Water Res., 2015; 68: 364–373.

Passos F, Carretero J, Ferrer I. Comparing pretreatment methods for improving microalgae anaerobic digestion: thermal, hydrothermal, microwave and ultrasound. Chem. Eng. J., 2015; 279: 667–672.

Passos F, Garc A J, Ferrer I. Impact of low temperature pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass. Bioresour. Technol., 2013; 138(2): 79–86.

González-Fernández C, Sialve B, Bernet N, Steyer J P. Comparison of ultrasound and thermal pretreatment of Scenedesmus biomass on methane production. Bioresour. Technol., 2012; 110(4): 610–616.

Mendez L, Mahdy A, Demuez M, Ballesteros M, González-Fernández C. Effect of high pressure thermal pretreatment on Chlorella vulgaris biomass: organic matter solubilisation and biochemical methane potential. Fuel, 2014; 117: 674–679.

Schwede S, Rehman Z U, Gerber M, Theiss G, Span R. Effects of thermal pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of Nannochloropsis salina biomass. Bioresour. Technol., 2013; 143(6): 505–511.

Rodriguez C, Alaswad A, Mooney J, Prescott T, Olabi A G. Pre-treatment techniques used for anaerobic digestion of algae. Fuel Process. Technol., 2015; 138: 765–779.

Ometto F, Quiroga G, Pšenička P, Whitton R, Jefferson B, Villa R. Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: Thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis. Water Res., 2014; 65: 350–361.

Shen W D, Jiang Z M, Tong J G. Engineering Thermodynamics. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2007; 144–148. (in Chinese)

Bezerra M A, Santelli R E, Oliveira E P, Villar L S, Escaleira L A. Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta, 2008; 76(5): 965–977.

Ho C H L, Cacace J E, Mazza G. Extraction of lignans, proteins and carbohydrates from flaxseed meal with pressurized low polarity water. Food Sci. Technol. Int., 2007; 40(9): 1637–1647.

Appiah-Nkansah N B, Zhang K, Rooney W, Wang D H. Model study on extraction of fermentable sugars and nonstructural carbohydrate from sweet sorghum using diffusion process. Ind. Crops Prod., 2016; 83: 654–662.

Mussatto S I, Carneiro L M, Silva J P, Roberto I C, Teixeira J A. A study on chemical constituents and sugars extraction from spent coffee grounds. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011; 83(2): 368–374.

Sun Y H, Liao Q, Huang Y, Xia A, Fu Q, Zhu X, Zheng Y P. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth. Bioresour. Technol., 2016; In press. doi: j.biortech.2016.08.063

Dubois M, Gilles K A, Hamilton J K, Rebers P A, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical chemistry, 1956; 28(3): 350–356.

Lowry O H, Rosebrough N J, Farr A L, Randall R J. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J biol Chem., 1951; 193: 265–275.

Salam K A, Velasquez-Orta S B, Harvey A P. Surfactant-assisted direct biodiesel production from wet Nannochloropsis occulata by in situ transesterification/ reactive extraction. Biofuel Res J., 2016: 3(1): 366–371.

Choi S A, Oh Y K, Jeong M J, Kim S W, Lee J K, Park J Y. Effects of ionic liquid mixtures on lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris. Renew Energy, 2014; 65: 169–174.

Van Boekel M. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review. Food/Nahrung., 2001; 45(3): 150–159.

Tian C Y, Li B M, Liu Z D, Zhang Y H, Lu H F. Hydrothermal liquefaction for algal biorefinery: A critical review. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 2014; 38: 933–950.

Full Text: PDF

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.